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Ockham also composed Summulae in libros Physicorum (or Philosophia naturalis) and Quaestiones in libros Physicorum. As to the Tractatus de successivis, this is a compilation made by another hand from an authentic work of Ockham, namely the Expositio super libros Physicorum. Boehner makes it clear that it can be used as a source for Ockham’s doctrine. ’ The authenticity of the Quaestiones diversae: De relatione, de puncto, de negatione, is also doubtful. 3 4 Theological works by Ockham include the Quodlibeta VII, the Tractatus de Sacramento Altaris or De Corpore Christi (which seems to contain two distinct treatises) and the Tractatus de praedestinatione et de praescientia Dei et de futuris contingentibus.

The natural sign is the concept. Whether we are English and use the word ‘man’ or whether we are French and use the word ‘homme’, the concept or logical significance of the term is the same. The words are different, but their meaning is the same. Ockham distinguished, therefore, both the spoken word (terminus prolatus) and the written word (terminus scriptus) from the concept (terminus conceptus or intentio animae), that is, the term considered according to its meaning or logical significance. Ockham called the concept or terminus conceptus a ‘natural sign’ because he thought that the direct apprehension of anything causes naturally in the human mind a concept of that thing.

Quite apart from the question whether there is or is not such a problem, the resolute denial that there is a problem facilitates, I think, the taking of further steps on the road to nominalism which Petrus Aureoli himself did not take. After all, Ockham regarded his theory of universals as simply the logical conclusion, of the truth that only individuals exist. 47 48 Again, though it can be said with truth that Durandus’s assertion that universality belongs only to the concept and Petrus Aureoli’s and Henry of Harclay’s assertions that the universal concept is a fabrication of the mind and that universality has esse obiectivum only in the concept do not constitute a rejection of moderate realism, yet the tendency shown by Petrus Aureoli and Henry of Harclay to explain the genesis of the universal concept by reference to a confused or less clear impression of the individual does facilitate a breakaway from the theory of universals maintained by Thomas Aquinas.

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