By Braunecker B., Hentschel R., Tiziani H.
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Extra resources for Advanced Optics Using Aspherical Elements
Only smoothing of the surface is required. For parts generated by conventional grinding, like most optical elements, the subsurface damage layer determines the amount of material that has to be removed by polishing. The polishing process can be described by the Preston equation . Research work on chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) indicates a polishing gap of several micrometers . To keep the gap constant, as shown in Fig. 11, the polishing pad has to be flexible enough to adapt itself to the local curvature of the asphere within a tolerance of a few micrometers.
Parts 5 and 12 of ISO 10110 give the rules on how to indicate these form tolerances in the drawings of optical elements. 3 Global deviation from the speciﬁed surface shape function (rotationally symmetric asphere). 012 mm from the speciﬁed value. tolerance indications and give information on testing of optical elements, especially by interferometric methods. Alternatively, the permissible form deviations can be specified according to ISO 1101 as tolerance zones, inside which the manufactured surfaces must be contained.
3 Principle of a copy machine for aspheres. The introduction of the computer around 1976 revolutionized optical fabrication. The technical possibility of continuous path control by computer initiated modern generating and polishing methods. With regard to generating, two approaches were chosen by the scientists and engineers at that time. The first approach was to keep most of the fundamental ideas from the time before the computer era. One example of such a machine is shown in Fig. 5. The aspherical element is located below on a rotary table.