By J. Patrick Fitch
This instructional may help technical execs in optics confirm even if their applied sciences have strength program within the existence sciences. It is also invaluable as a ''prep class'' for extra precise books on biology and biotechnology, filling the space among primary and high-level approaches.
- simple Biology
- Nucleic Acids because the Blueprint
- Manipulating Nucleic Acids and Proteins
- An built-in process for organic Discovery
- DNA Sequencing
- Detecting Nucleic Acids
- Protein Structure
- Appendix A: devices and Measures
- Appendix B: Nonscientific Issues
- steered Reading
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Extra info for An Engineering Introduction to Biotechnology
1. DNA is composed of subunits called deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Each dNTP is composed of a sugar, a phospate group, and a nitrogenous base (A, C, G, or T). The bases bind in pairs (A-to-T or C-to-G) to form a doublestranded piece of DNA. Note the major and minor groove in the helix. The series of bases on a strand define the DNA sequence and provide a metric for DNA length. 34 nm long and the structure of DNA repeats every 10 bases. 2 shows an ideogram of a chromosome. The ends of the chromosomes are called telomeres.
Soon after the operon idea was introduced, theoretical biologists tried to model it as a Boolean system: a gene was turned on (1) or off (0) by the promoter or repressor protein. This led to important discoveries about the nature of 40 Chapter 2 network dynamics, autocatalytic sets, and how order emerges from the interconnected reactions of a cell. Ultimately, however, Boolean models failed to predict the behavior of many of the biological systems of interest. A full treatment of a complicated biological system is often difficult, so a Boolean representation of the reactions is still used when the pathway size is large.
2 lists the size in DNA base pairs of the 24 human chromosomes. In normal cells, there are two copies of the numbered chromosomes and these are called the autosomes. The autosomes pair by indices—a chromosome 19 from the mother pairs with a chromosome 19 from the father. The X- and Y-chromosomes determine sex with the pairs X-to-X and X-to-Y, resulting in female and male progeny, respectively. Since the female parent can only 21 22 Chapter 2 contribute an X chromosome, the male parent’s contribution determines the gender of the progeny.